Category Archives: empowerment

Is it now possible to imagine Australia having a national affordable housing strategy, backed by funding, by the end of 2016.

At the National Housing Conference last week, there was considerable optimism about the newly appointed federal minister for cities, Jamie Briggs, whose infrastructure mandate includes housing. New energy is coming from the states with the largest affordable housing deficits – a social housing initiative from the New South Wales government and a “refreshed” metropolitan planning strategy in Melbourne with a stronger emphasis on affordable housing.

It is now possible to imagine Australia having a national affordable housing strategy, backed by funding, by the end of 2016.

Australia certainly needs such a strategy. The population is projected to reach 38 million in the next 35 years. Sydney and Melbourne are each expected to grow by at least three million people. The proportion of older people will be higher, with a lower proportion in the paid workforce.

This means we need at least six million new housing units in the next three decades. There is increasing impetus to locate these dwellings close to public transport, employment clusters and health and social services.

Cost pressures are intensifying

Rising housing demand and prices affect everyone, but low-income renters have fared worst in recent years. Capital city rents rose by twice the level of inflation from 2005 to 2010. By 2011, the shortage of suitable rental properties exceeded 500,000.

As a result, even most households that receive Commonwealth Rent Assistance (projected to cost A$6.6 billion in 2015-16) pay well over the recommended maximum rent. Some 55% of the A$7.7 billion annual cost to the government of capital gains exemptions and negative gearing goes to the top 10% of income earners. Only 4% goes to the bottom 20% of households by income.

Existing programs are not accomplishing policy aims. The Abbott government discontinued two small national programs, the Social Housing Initiative co-funding construction of non-profit housing and the National Rental Affordability Scheme subsidising below-market rental housing. No national strategy or infrastructure funding program has replaced those small but important initiatives.

Key steps towards affordability

What would be the basic elements of a national affordable housing strategy? Economist David Rosen led a review of the US$7 trillion spent in the US on federal finance, tax, lending, spending and regulatory programs and policies. According to Rosen, the place to start is a standard definition of “affordable housing”.

Malcolm Turnbull’s appointment of a cities minister, Jamie Briggs, has raised hopes of action on developing a national affordable housing strategy. AAP/Lukas Coch

The next step would be to calculate current and projected need for affordable housing by subtracting housing need from the available stock. There are local efforts to calculate this in cities like Melbourne, but it would need to be done in a consistent way across the country.

The cost of owning or renting a home includes rent or mortgage payments, property taxes and unit maintenance. A household can also incur onerous transport costs, if living far from employment and good public transport. Internationally, affordability is usually defined as housing that costs no more than 30-35% of household income, adjusted for household size.

For households earning less than 30% of their area’s median income, private market housing will almost certainly be out of reach without some form of subsidy.

In metropolitan Melbourne, for instance, the average weekly income is A$1333. A little over 11% of households in the city (159,000 households) earn less than A$400 a week, which is 30% of the median income. These households could only afford to pay a maximum of A$133 a week on the rent or mortgage. Less than 1% of rentals in Melbourne are available at those prices.

Social housing constitutes less than 3% of total housing stock. Most of it is occupied by these low-income households. So, at the most basic level, affordable housing would seek to fill that shortfall of more than 150,000 units in one major city alone, as well as building for future affordable housing needs.

How do we fund affordable housing?

After calculating need, the next requirement for a national affordable housing strategy would be to identify all potential revenue sources to fund it. These could be direct funding from national, state and local governments, but also indirect funding through tax rebates, low- or no-cost land, or mechanisms like reduced parking requirements or expedited planning approvals (which cuts land-holding costs and uncertainties).

A plethora of mechanisms used in other countries could be adopted here. For instance, in the US the Low Income Housing Tax Credit has, since 1986, allowed private investors to obtain tax credits in return for a ten-year investment in constructing or rehabilitating low-income rental housing. The stable and bipartisan program injects about US$6 billion a year in capital into affordable housing.

If a small proportion of the negative gearing tax credit were re-allocated towards investment in social housing, a similarly scaled program could be instituted in Australia. Similarly, if the Commonwealth guaranteed a 6% return on social housing investment, how much of the A$2 trillionheld in superannuation funds could be unlocked?

For the past two years, the Transforming Housing project has brought together state and local government, private developers, community housing providers and commercial and philanthropic investors to identify barriers to scaling up affordable housing in metropolitan Melbourne and how to overcome them.

Much of the emphasis has been on mechanisms at a state and local level, ranging from value capture financing to innovative design and construction. However, there is growing consensus that a Commonwealth affordable housing strategy is essential to enable integrated action by other levels of government and the private and charitable sectors.

With a clear sense of the numbers around affordable housing need and a stable financing and renewal model, the Turnbull government could reap multiple co-benefits. A national strategy could make cities more liveable, stimulate the property and construction sector, and reduce healthcare costs. The private and charitable sectors are waiting to swing into action.


This article was co-authored by: Dr David Rosen, principal of DRA Associates and an advisor on development, finance and policy; Rob Pradolin, general manager of business development for Frasers Property Australia; Catherine Brown, CEO of the Lord Mayor’s Charitable Foundation; and Dr Heather Holst, deputy CEO and director of services and housing for Launch Housing.

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Five of the major regions throughout Queensland are experiencing steady improvements in median house values.

The Sunshine State is establishing its growth potential according to data released by the Real Estate Institute of Queensland (REIQ).

“This report supports the REIQ’s long-held view that those areas of Queensland that have been doing well are continuing to do well,” according to Antonia Mercorella, CEO of the REIQ.

Brisbane is the fastest-selling area in the state with average days on market at 57 – a drop of eight days compared to a year ago.

Brisbane median house values have also risen 1.6 per cent over the March quarter, which along with Toowoomba reflects the state’s the highest quarterly increase.

The capital city’s proportion of profit-making sales increased three per cent in the year to reflect 96 per cent.

Toowoomba holds the state’s record, however, with 98 per cent of all houses sold recording a profit for the vendor.

Mercorella says Queensland is in the grip of steady, sustainable growth, although some regionals are in a recovery phase.

“Those areas that are struggling to recover from the resources downturn are still trying to stabilize,” she says.

“But what we don’t have is the start of another boom and bust cycle, which as we all know by now, doesn’t really benefit anyone in the long-term.”

Five of the major regions throughout Queensland are experiencing steady improvements in median house values.

Brisbane, the Gold and Sunshine coasts, Toowoomba and Cairns, all showed rising annual median house values of approximately 1.5 to 1.9 per cent on average each quarter over the past year.

Gladstone’s median house values rose by 0.8 per cent, which is the city’s first positive move in five quarters.

The rate of decline in Mackay’s median values appears to be slowing with a drop of one per cent to its annual median value in the March quarter.

In addition, Townsville’s median house values rose 0.7 per cent, and its proportion of profit-making sales has remained stable at 74 per cent since August last year.

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Our goal is simple: to provide the greatest possible net operating income, while continually enhancing the value of the asset. We believe in using proven and new strategies and continually looking for new ways to provide cost savings for the property and the owner Our vision To provide a flexible and all-encompassing management service for our customers' properties and assets. Our values Exceptional customer service.  Transparency, punctuality and reliability.

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New property investors paying too much – Money magazine

It’s a case of “buyer beware” for investors thinking of getting into the Sydney, Melbourne or Brisbane residential markets. With Sydney prices overvalued by 25%, according to one leading expert, and further rises expected in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane this year, new investors in these markets could be in danger of paying over the odds.

They are likely to also get low rental returns, making them dependent on ever-rising values to earn decent long-term returns on their assets.

Capital city house and apartment values have been rising at more than three times the pace of weekly rents, says Tim Lawless, head of research for CoreLogic RP Data. “The byproduct of such strong capital gains and relatively weak rental growth is that rental yields are being forced lower and lower.” Across the capital city markets gross rental yields have fallen from an average of 4.3% to 3.7% in the year to February 2015, Lawless says.

House price rises of between 7% and 15% this year for the three eastern state capitals are on the cards, according to respected property analyst Louis Christopher, who heads SQM Research. He says that while there is no national housing boom now, if his forecasts are correct east coast capitals will show very robust price growth. The Sydney market is about 25% overvalued. When it reached about 35% in 1989 there was a price correction, Christopher says.

Weaker jobs growth, low wage rises and an economy lacking in confidence are unlikely to spark higher rentals.

Investors entering the market now, especially in Sydney and to a lesser degree Melbourne and Brisbane, need to be very confident that the good times will continue to roll. They are banking on no interest rate rises, no changes to the negative gearing or capital gains tax rules and no inclusion of the family home in the asset test for the age pension, all of which have the potential to send prices down.

Interest rates will rise at some stage, although most economists are predicting at least one more cut before that happens. Christopher says a 0.25% rate increase would stop any housing market boom. “But when are we going to get a rate rise?”

Politicians of all persuasions fear the repercussions of changing the tax rules for property investors but there is a growing band of experts advocating changes, partly to lessen the burden these tax breaks place on strained government coffers and also to help first-home buyers get into the market.

“Negative gearing survives because of persistent myths that it improves housing availability and reduces rents,” says John Daley, head of the Grattan Institute, in an article in The Sydney Morning Herald. “It survives because 1.2 million taxpayers – most voters – use it to minimise their tax. But negative gearing is expensive, inefficient, inequitable, and it reduces home ownership. For governments under severe budgetary pressure it should be near the top of the reform list.”

Whenever possible changes to negative gearing are raised, the real estate lobby points to 1985, when it was abolished for a short period, claiming it harmed tenants because rents rose sharply and the supply of rental accommodation fell. But Bank of America Merrill Lynch chief economist Saul Eslake disputes this, saying rents rose only in Sydney and Perth. And these rises were sparked by tight supply with vacancy rates less than 2%, not the abolition of negative gearing.

If negative gearing is modified or abolished and investors dump their properties, it’s likely many will be bought by first-home owners, so while there will be a drop in the supply of rental property there will also be a fall in demand, Eslake says.

Pam Walkley, founding editor of Money and former property editor with The Australian Financial Review, has hands-on experience of buying, building, renovating, subdividing and selling property.

Our goal is simple: to provide the greatest possible net operating income, while continually enhancing the value of the asset. We believe in using proven and new strategies and continually looking for new ways to provide cost savings for the property and the owner Our vision To provide a flexible and all-encompassing management service for our customers' properties and assets. Our values Exceptional customer service.  Transparency, punctuality and reliability.

New property investors paying too much – Money magazine.

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Too many property investors are missing out on important cash flow by neglecting depreciation

Many property investors are missing out on beneficial depreciation tax claims. The annoying thing is how often this happens, when it really doesn’t need to happen at all!

Tax depreciation is often an overlooked method of obtaining tax deductions on investment properties. It is a big help in enabling investors to minimise their tax liability and improve their cash flow. Sadly though, we often see situations where depreciation either isn’t maximised to its fullest potential, or worse yet, overlooked entirely.

The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) recognises that the value of capital assets reduces over time as they approach the end of their effective life. These assets can be written off as a tax deduction ie. ‘depreciation’.

What depreciation should I be considering?
If you own an investment property (new or old, large or small), two areas of depreciation are available:

1. plant and equipment
2. capital works on the building

Different items within a rental property have different rates of depreciation based on the effective life of the item. These items are identified by certified quantity surveyors, who inspect the property assets and then calculate its depreciation through their expertise and knowledge of which items are depreciable and how savings can be achieved.

To claim maximum tax benefits on an investment property the ATO encourages property investors to obtain a fully compliant tax depreciation report prepared by a certified quantity surveyor. You or your accountant will use this report when preparing your income tax return.

Further, some property investors may not realise that they don’t have to wait all year to benefit from the depreciation deductions available to them. Instead, they can improve their cash flow throughout the year simply by nominating to use a Pay As You Go (PAYG) withholding variation.

A PAYG withholding variation allows individuals to vary the amount of tax withheld by their employer in each pay to anticipate their tax liabilities. This means that they can take advantage of the deductions available to them regularly, rather than waiting until the end of a financial year for their tax refund. You should speak to your accountant about this.

When to obtain a property depreciation report

Ideally, a depreciation report should be obtained soon after the purchase of an investment property. This enables a quantity surveyor to separate the items included in the purchase price, from the expenses that will be incurred by the new owner in the future. This detailed analysis ensures the maximum investment property depreciation allowances can be claimed.

A depreciation report is critical documentary evidence required by the ATO to support any tax deductions for components of an investment property that are decreasing in value. All investment properties are eligible to have their assets depreciated where, generally speaking, construction costs are incurred after 18 July 1985 and structural improvements are incurred after 27 February 1992. This applies even if the previous owner paid for the construction. In the event that the original construction cost data is no longer available, the ATO stipulates that a quantity surveyor must assess this figure.

Where to start – immediate tax depreciation write-offs and the low value pool

Obtaining independent, professional property advice ensures investment property owners stay up to date with the intricacies of tax legislation and can make well-informed decisions that enhance cash flow. For instance, waiting until just before the close of the financial year to buy an asset for an investment property may entitle you to claim the full cost on your tax return for that year. For example, plant and equipment assets valued at $300 or less are generally able to be written off at 100 per cent in the financial year of acquisition.

Moreover, under the Low Value Pool Regulations, certain items can be depreciated more quickly. Items that enter the pool are depreciated at a set rate or 18.75 per cent in the first year but in subsequent years, the percentage rate of depreciation jumps up to 37.5 per cent on the diminishing total.

What can effective property depreciation save you?

In typical situations – say a commercial property investment of around $1,000,000 – using a quantity surveyor and well-prepared depreciation report can result in clear benefits. Potential tax deductions under a well-planned depreciation schedule could total in excess of $27,000 in the first year of claim and over $100,000 for a 10-year period following the purchase of the property. For an individual taxpayer on the top marginal tax rate of 49.5 per cent (2014/2015 individual tax rate), the tax saving would be $13,365 on a $27,000 tax claim.

Of course, depreciation is only one component of owning an investment property and the associated tax deductions. Other deductions could include:

• fees to property management agencies (SEE WHAT WE CHARGE VRS WHAT OTHERS CHARGE http://wp.me/p1qS3N-7YJ
• repairs and maintenance to the property and its fixtures (IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO NOTE:-

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• interest payments on mortgages over the property
• council and water rates
• property insurances  * smoke alarm compliance *Terri Scheer Landlords Insurance

The total deductions can be considerable and go a very long way to improving your tax bill at the end of the financial year and throughout your years of investment in the property.

Clearly, there’s a real advantage in obtaining a depreciation report on your investment property. Our recommendation is to make sure you have a good depreciation strategy, but consult your accountant and other advisers before you finalise this!

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Mirvac To Develop $850m Eagle Farm Residential Project

Leading property group Mirvac has been selected as Brisbane Racing Club’s preferred partner for the development of its $850 million Eagle Farm Residential Precinct.

Mirvac were chosen from a shortlist of three contenders to partner with the Club on this quality project.

The Eagle Farm Residential Precinct will be built alongside the Eagle Farm Racecourse and as one of Brisbane’s most exciting lifestyle developments to date, the tender drew attention from local, interstate and offshore developers. The 10-year project forms part of the Eagle Farm Master Plan and will see the delivery of over 1,000 trackside apartments alongside an exciting food, beverage and retail destination.

HORSE RACING

Located in Ascot, just 6 kilometres from the Brisbane CBD, the 54,000 square metre site offers a premium, large-scale development opportunity in a thriving part of the city’s north east. A range of retail, commercial, hospitality and entertainment facilities are planned for the adjacent land.

Mirvac’s Group Executive Residential John Carfi said the business was thrilled to have been selected as the Brisbane Racing Club’s development partner at such an iconic Brisbane location.

150515 eaglefarmres_620x380

“This location provides Mirvac with an excellent opportunity to deliver quality residential apartments in the heart of Brisbane’s popular racing precinct,” he said.

“Mirvac will draw on its expertise and strong track record of delivering major residential and mixed-use developments and we look forward to working closely with the Brisbane Racing Club on the next phase of this exciting project.”

BRC’s Chairman Neville Bell said Mirvac had been chosen after a vigorous selection process based on its experience in large-scale, mixed-use development projects.

“The redevelopment of the Eagle Farm Racing Precinct is an exciting step for us as part of our 10 year Master Plan,” he said.

“Mirvac’s extensive experience in similar projects aligns with our objectives for the future of the club.

“We are delighted to have a major developer of Mirvac’s calibre onboard as we work through this significant redevelopment.”

The announcement for Mirvac follows successful sales results at its Waterfront, Newstead development which has delivered more than $150 million in sales.

THE MASTER PLAN

Eagle-Farm

Situated six kilometres to the Brisbane CBD, the 5.431 hectare site is approved for residential apartment towers up to 15 storeys.

The site, known as Precinct 5B of the Eagle Farm Master Plan area, provides a rare opportunity to partner with the Brisbane Racing Club to develop its large residential development site.

Brisbane Racing Club’s General Manager – Property & Asset Management, Mr Jeff Kahler said the Club was seeking a joint venture partner for what will be one of Brisbane’s most exciting developments.

“Brisbane Racing Club has obtained planning approval for the master planned development of Eagle Farm and Doomben Racecourses and is seeking a joint venture partner for this iconic Brisbane residential opportunity which will appeal to large developers who want to be involved in a premium, large scale development,” said Mr Kahler.

Knight Frank’s Director of Commercial Sales, Mr Morrison said that the master planned development of the non-core land of Eagle Farm and Doomben Racecourses is a rare opportunity for a local or offshore developer.

“This approval is one the largest and most exciting lifestyle projects in Brisbane’s history and one we’re extremely confident will be well received by the developer community,” continued Mr Morrison.

“The Eagle Farm Residential Precinct is located alongside the Eagle Farm Racecourse and is designated as a high density residential area. This site is capable of sustaining in excess of 1,000 apartments and is situated immediately next to a proposed mixed-use development which may include a range of uses comprising retail, commercial, hospitality and entertainment facilities.

“The site is located in a popular lifestyle precinct, well serviced by public transport with rail, bus and Citycat all close by and easily accessible from all parts of Brisbane and beyond via Inner City Bypass,” added Mr Morrison.

Knight Frank’s Managing Director of Commercial Sales, Mr Paul Henley said that Brisbane residential site sales have gone through considerable growth the past 12 months.

“The Brisbane Apartment market has entered a new property cycle. Sales rates have now remained above long term averages for a full 12 month period. Sale prices have stabilised and stock transacting is a good mix of investment and owner occupier product which signals a suitable diversity of purchasers in the marketplace, as the development of Eagle Farm Residential Precinct is likely to offer.

“In addition to traditional markets Melbourne and Sydney, we have sensed a considerable shift in favour of Brisbane also in our recent visits to Malaysia and Singapore as a preferred Australian location for investment This positive sentiment in favour of Brisbane is in our opinion going to grow in the short to medium term,” added Mr Henley.

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Direct Trade Sino Aust

According to The Australia China Business Council, direct trade from Australia to China contributes 5.5 per cent to Australian GDP, amounting to $79,150 million, nearly 200,000 Australian jobs (or one in 58 Australian jobs) is sustained by direct export activities to China. ‪#‎ACBC‬

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Best Regards
Linda & Carlos Debello
“Your Local Property Sales & Management Specialist”
LJ Gilland Real Estate Pty Ltd
PO BOX 19
ZILLMERE 4034
0413 560 808 (Mob 2)
0409 995 578 (Linda)
http://www.ljgrealestate.com.au/index.php?lan=ch Chinese website
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Mist or Smoke this is how a cat reacts. What do dogs do, I wonder?

This Is How Cats React During A Fire

HOW CATS REACT TO FIRE

Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.

Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.

Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as “lurps” or “yowps”.

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.

Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a “meow” (or “miaow”) sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.

Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the “meow” sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

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Friendship

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